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Publications about 'saturation'
Articles in journal or book chapters
  1. X. Bao, Z. Lin, and E.D. Sontag. Finite gain stabilization of discrete-time linear systems subject to actuator saturation. Automatica, 36(2):269-277, 2000. [PDF] Keyword(s): discrete-time, saturation, input-to-state stability.
    Abstract:
    It is shown that, for neutrally stable discrete-time linear systems subject to actuator saturation, finite gain lp stabilization can be achieved by linear output feedback, for all p>1. An explicit construction of the corresponding feedback laws is given. The feedback laws constructed also result in a closed-loop system that is globally asymptotically stable, and in an input-to-state estimate.


  2. M. Malisoff and E.D. Sontag. Universal formulas for feedback stabilization with respect to Minkowski balls. Systems Control Lett., 40(4):247-260, 2000. [PDF] Keyword(s): nonlinear control, feedback stabilization, saturation, control-Lyapunov functions.
    Abstract:
    This note provides explicit algebraic stabilizing formulas for clf's when controls are restricted to certain Minkowski balls in Euclidean space. Feedbacks of this kind are known to exist by a theorem of Artstein, but the proof of Artstein's theorem is nonconstructive. The formulas are obtained from a general feedback stabilization technique and are used to construct approximation solutions to some stabilization problems.


  3. Y. Yang, E.D. Sontag, and H.J. Sussmann. Global stabilization of linear discrete-time systems with bounded feedback. Systems Control Lett., 30(5):273-281, 1997. [PDF] [doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6911(97)00021-2] Keyword(s): discrete-time, saturation.
    Abstract:
    This paper deals with the problem of global stabilization of linear discrete time systems by means of bounded feedback laws. The main result proved is an analog of one proved for the continuous time case by the authors, and shows that such stabilization is possible if and only if the system is stabilizable with arbitrary controls and the transition matrix has spectral radius less or equal to one. The proof provides in principle an algorithm for the construction of such feedback laws, which can be implemented either as cascades or as parallel connections (``single hidden layer neural networks'') of simple saturation functions.


  4. W. Liu, Y. Chitour, and E.D. Sontag. On finite-gain stabilizability of linear systems subject to input saturation. SIAM J. Control Optim., 34(4):1190-1219, 1996. [PDF] [doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0363012994263469] Keyword(s): saturation.
    Abstract:
    This paper deals with (global) finite-gain input/output stabilization of linear systems with saturated controls. For neutrally stable systems, it is shown that the linear feedback law suggested by the passivity approach indeed provides stability, with respect to every Lp-norm. Explicit bounds on closed-loop gains are obtained, and they are related to the norms for the respective systems without saturation. These results do not extend to the class of systems for which the state matrix has eigenvalues on the imaginary axis with nonsimple (size >1) Jordan blocks, contradicting what may be expected from the fact that such systems are globally asymptotically stabilizable in the state-space sense; this is shown in particular for the double integrator.


  5. Y. Chitour, W. Liu, and E.D. Sontag. On the continuity and incremental-gain properties of certain saturated linear feedback loops. Internat. J. Robust Nonlinear Control, 5(5):413-440, 1995. [PDF] Keyword(s): saturation.
    Abstract:
    This paper discusses various continuity and incremental-gain properties for neutrally stable linear systems under linear feedback subject to actuator saturation. The results complement our previous ones, which applied to the same class of problems and provided finite-gain stability.


  6. Y. Lin and E.D. Sontag. Control-Lyapunov universal formulas for restricted inputs. Control Theory Adv. Tech., 10(4, part 5):1981-2004, 1995. [PDF] Keyword(s): control-Lyapunov functions, saturation.
    Abstract:
    We deal with the question of obtaining explicit feedback control laws that stabilize a nonlinear system, under the assumption that a "control Lyapunov function" is known. In previous work, the case of unbounded controls was considered. Here we obtain results for bounded and/or positive controls. We also provide some simple preliminary remarks regarding a set stability version of the problem and a version for systems subject to disturbances.


  7. E.D. Sontag. On the input-to-state stability property. European J. Control, 1:24-36, 1995. [PDF] Keyword(s): input to state stability.
    Abstract:
    The "input to state stability" (ISS) property provides a natural framework in which to formulate notions of stability with respect to input perturbations. In this expository paper, we review various equivalent definitions expressed in stability, Lyapunov-theoretic, and dissipation terms. We sketch some applications to the stabilization of cascades of systems and of linear systems subject to control saturation.


  8. R. Koplon, E.D. Sontag, and M. L. J. Hautus. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs. Linear Algebra Appl., 205/206:909-936, 1994. [PDF] Keyword(s): observability, saturation.
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.


  9. H.J. Sussmann, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Yang. A general result on the stabilization of linear systems using bounded controls. IEEE Trans. Automat. Control, 39(12):2411-2425, 1994. [PDF] Keyword(s): saturation, neural networks, global stability, nonlinear stability.
    Abstract:
    We present two constructions of controllers that globally stabilize linear systems subject to control saturation. We allow essentially arbitrary saturation functions. The only conditions imposed on the system are the obvious necessary ones, namely that no eigenvalues of the uncontrolled system have positive real part and that the standard stabilizability rank condition hold. One of the constructions is in terms of a "neural-network type" one-hidden layer architecture, while the other one is in terms of cascades of linear maps and saturations.


  10. Y. Lin and E.D. Sontag. A universal formula for stabilization with bounded controls. Systems Control Lett., 16(6):393-397, 1991. [PDF] [doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-6911(91)90111-Q] Keyword(s): saturation.
    Abstract:
    We provide a formula for a stabilizing feedback law using a bounded control, under the assumption that an appropriate control-Lyapunov function is known. Such a feedback, smooth away from the origin and continuous everywhere, is known to exist via Artstein's Theorem. As in the unbounded-control case treated in a previous note, we provide an explicit and ``universal'' formula given by an algebraic function of Lie derivatives. In particular, we extend to the bounded case the result that the feedback can be chosen analytic if the Lyapunov function and the vector fields defining the system are analytic.


  11. E.D. Sontag. An algebraic approach to bounded controllability of linear systems. Internat. J. Control, 39(1):181-188, 1984. [PDF] Keyword(s): saturation.
    Abstract:
    In this note we present an algebraic approach to the proof that a linear system with matrices (A,B) is null-controllable using bounded inputs iff it is null-controllable (with unbounded inputs) and all eigenvalues of A have nonpositive real parts (continuous time) or magnitude not greater than one (discrete time). We also give the analogous results for the asymptotic case. Finally, we give an interpretation of these results in the context of local nonlinear controllability.


Conference articles
  1. X. Bao, Z. Lin, and E.D. Sontag. Some new results on finite gain $l_p$ stabilization of discrete-time linear systems subject to actuator saturation. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Tampa, Dec. 1998, IEEE Publications, 1998, pages 4628-4629, 1998.


  2. E.D. Sontag. From linear to nonlinear: some complexity comparisons. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, New Orleans, Dec. 1995, IEEE Publications, 1995, pages 2916-2920, 1995. [PDF] Keyword(s): theory of computing and complexity, computational complexity, controllability, observability.
    Abstract:
    This paper deals with the computational complexity, and in some cases undecidability, of several problems in nonlinear control. The objective is to compare the theoretical difficulty of solving such problems to the corresponding problems for linear systems. In particular, the problem of null-controllability for systems with saturations (of a "neural network" type) is mentioned, as well as problems regarding piecewise linear (hybrid) systems. A comparison of accessibility, which can be checked fairly simply by Lie-algebraic methods, and controllability, which is at least NP-hard for bilinear systems, is carried out. Finally, some remarks are given on analog computation in this context.


  3. W. Liu, Y. Chitour, and E.D. Sontag. Remarks on finite gain stabilizability of linear systems subject to input saturation,. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, San Antonio, Dec. 1993, IEEE Publications, 1993, pages 1808-1813, 1993.


  4. H.J. Sussmann, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Yang. A general result on the stabilization of linear systems using bounded controls. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, San Antonio, Dec. 1993, IEEE Publications, 1993, pages 1802-1807, 1993. Keyword(s): saturation.


  5. Y. Yang and E.D. Sontag. Stabilization with saturated actuators, a worked example: F-8 longitudinal flight control. In Proc. 1993 IEEE Conf. on Aerospace Control Systems, Thousand Oaks, CA, May 1993, pages 289-293, 1993. [PDF] Keyword(s): saturation.
    Abstract:
    This paper develops in detail an explicit design for control under saturation limits for the linearized equations of longitudinal flight control for an F-8 aircraft, and tests the obtained controller on the original nonlinear model.


  6. E.D. Sontag. Systems combining linearity and saturations, and relations to neural nets. In Nonlinear Control Systems Design 1992, IFAC Symposia Series, 1993, M. Fliess Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993, pages 15-21, 1992. Note: (Also in Proc. Nonlinear Control Systems Design Symp., Bordeaux, June 1992, M. Fliess, Ed., IFAC Publications, pp. 242-247). Keyword(s): neural networks, recurrent neural networks.


  7. E.D. Sontag and Y. Lin. Stabilization with respect to noncompact sets: Lyapunov characterizations and effect of bounded inputs. In Nonlinear Control Systems Design 1992, IFAC Symposia Series, M. Fliess Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993, pages 43-49, 1992. Note: Also in Proc. Nonlinear Control Systems Design Symp., Bordeaux, June 1992,(M. Fliess, Ed.), IFAC Publications, pp. 9--14. [PDF] Keyword(s): saturation.


  8. Y. Yang, H.J. Sussmann, and E.D. Sontag. Stabilization of linear systems with bounded controls. In Nonlinear Control Systems Design 1992, IFAC Symposia Series, 1993, M. Fliess Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993, pages 51-56, 1992. Note: Also in Proc. Nonlinear Control Systems Design Symp., Bordeaux, June 1992,(M. Fliess, Ed.), IFAC Publications, pp. 15-20.Keyword(s): saturation.


  9. E.D. Sontag and H.J. Sussmann. Nonlinear output feedback design for linear systems with saturating controls. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Honolulu, Dec. 1990, IEEE Publications, 1990, pages 3414-3416, 1990. [PDF] Keyword(s): saturation.
    Abstract:
    This paper shows the existence of (nonlinear) smooth dynamic feedback stabilizers for linear time invariant systems under input constraints, assuming only that open-loop asymptotic controllability and detectability hold.



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