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Publications about 'optimization'
Articles in journal or book chapters
  1. J.A. Ascensao, P. Datta, B. Hancioglu, E.D. Sontag, M.L. Gennaro, and O.A. Igoshin. Non-monotonic response dynamics of glyoxylate shunt genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Computational Biology, 12:e1004741, 2016. [PDF]
    Abstract:
    Understanding how dynamical responses of biological networks are constrained by underlying network topology is one of the fundamental goals of systems biology. Here we employ monotone systems theory to formulate a theorem stating necessary conditions for non-monotonic time-response of a biochemical network to a monotonic stimulus. We apply this theorem to analyze the non-monotonic dynamics of the sigmaB-regulated glyoxylate shunt gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells exposed to hypoxia. We first demonstrate that the known network structure is inconsistent with observed dynamics. To resolve this inconsistency we employ the formulated theorem, modeling simulations and optimization along with follow-up dynamic experimental measurements. We show a requirement for post-translational modulation of sigmaB activity in order to reconcile the network dynamics with its topology. The results of this analysis make testable experimental predictions and demonstrate wider applicability of the developed methodology to a wide class of biological systems.


  2. M. Miller, M. Hafner, E.D. Sontag, N. Davidsohn, S. Subramanian, P. E. M. Purnick, D. Lauffenburger, and R. Weiss. Modular design of artificial tissue homeostasis: robust control through synthetic cellular heterogeneity. PLoS Computational Biology, 8:e1002579-, 2012. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, homeostasis, stem cells, synthetic biology.
    Abstract:
    Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of beta-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation) are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for 'synthetic cellular heterogeneity' that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism), demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a 'phenotypic sensitivity analysis' method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in isolation, and its impact on overall system performance once integrated.


  3. S. Kachalo, R. Zhang, E.D. Sontag, R. Albert, and B. Dasgupta. NET-SYNTHESIS: A software for synthesis, inference and simplification of signal transduction networks. Bioinformatics, 24:293 - 295, 2008. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, algorithms, signal transduction networks, graph algorithms.
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a software tool for inference and simplification of signal transduction networks. The method relies on the representation of observed indirect causal relationships as network paths, using techniques from combinatorial optimization to find the sparsest graph consistent with all experimental observations. We illustrate the biological usability of our software by applying it to a previously published signal transduction network and by using it to synthesize and simplify a novel network corresponding to activation-induced cell death in large granular lymphocyte leukemia.


  4. R. Albert, B. DasGupta, R. Dondi, S. Kachalo, E.D. Sontag, A. Zelikovsky, and K. Westbrooks. A novel method for signal transduction network inference from indirect experimental evidence. Journal of Computational Biology, 14:927-949, 2007. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, algorithms, signal transduction networks, graph algorithms.
    Abstract:
    This paper introduces a new method of combined synthesis and inference of biological signal transduction networks. The main idea lies in representing observed causal relationships as network paths, and using techniques from combinatorial optimization to find the sparsest graph consistent with all experimental observations. The paper formalizes the approach, studies its computational complexity, proves new results for exact and approximate solutions of the computationally hard transitive reduction substep of the approach, validates the biological applicability by applying it to a previously published signal transduction network by Li et al., and shows that the algorithm for the transitive reduction substep performs well on graphs with a structure similar to those observed in transcriptional regulatory and signal transduction networks.


  5. B. DasGupta, J.P. Hespanha, J. Riehl, and E.D. Sontag. Honey-pot constrained searching with local sensory information. Nonlinear Analysis, 65:1773-1793, 2006. [PDF] Keyword(s): search problems, algorithms, computational complexity.
    Abstract:
    This paper investigates the problem of searching for a hidden target in a bounded region of the plane by an autonomous robot which is only able to use limited local sensory information. It proposes an aggregation-based approach to solve this problem, in which the continuous search space is partitioned into a finite collection of regions on which we define a discrete search problem and a solution to the original problem is obtained through a refinement procedure that lifts the discrete path into a continuous one. The resulting solution is in general not optimal but one can construct bounds to gauge the cost penalty incurred. The discrete version is formalized and an optimization problem is stated as a `reward-collecting' bounded-length path problem. NP-completeness and efficient approximation algorithms for various cases of this problem are discussed.


  6. M. J. Donahue, L. Gurvits, C. Darken, and E.D. Sontag. Rates of convex approximation in non-Hilbert spaces. Constr. Approx., 13(2):187-220, 1997. [PDF] Keyword(s): neural networks, optimization, approximation theory.
    Abstract:
    This paper deals with sparse approximations by means of convex combinations of elements from a predetermined "basis" subset S of a function space. Specifically, the focus is on the rate at which the lowest achievable error can be reduced as larger subsets of S are allowed when constructing an approximant. The new results extend those given for Hilbert spaces by Jones and Barron, including in particular a computationally attractive incremental approximation scheme. Bounds are derived for broad classes of Banach spaces. The techniques used borrow from results regarding moduli of smoothness in functional analysis as well as from the theory of stochastic processes on function spaces.


Conference articles
  1. C. Darken, M.J. Donahue, L. Gurvits, and E.D. Sontag. Rate of approximation results motivated by robust neural network learning. In COLT '93: Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on Computational learning theory, New York, NY, USA, pages 303-309, 1993. ACM Press. [doi:http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/168304.168357] Keyword(s): neural networks, optimization problems, approximation theory.


  2. E.D. Sontag and H.J. Sussmann. Image restoration and segmentation using the annealing algorithm. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Dec. and Control, 1985, pages 768-773, 1985. [PDF] Keyword(s): image processing, optimization.
    Abstract:
    We consider the problem of estimating a signal, which is known -- or assumed -- to be constant on each of the members of a partition of a square lattice into m unknown regions, from the observation of the signal plus Gaussian noise. This is a nonlinear estimation problem, for which it is not appropriate to use the conditional expectation as the estimate. We show that, at least in principle, the "maximum iikelihood estimator" (MLE) proposed by Geman and Geman lends itself to numerical computation using the annealing algorithm. We argue that the MLE by itself can be, under certain conditions (low signal to noise ratio), a very unsatisfactory estimator, in that it does worse than just deciding that the signal was zero. However, if combined with a rule which we propose, for deciding when to use and when to ignore it, the MLE can provide a reasonable suboptimal estimator. We then discuss preliminary numerical data obtained using the annealing method. These results indicate that: (a) the annealing algorithm performs remarkably well, and (b) a criterion can be formulated in terms of quantities computed from the observed image (without using a priori knowledge of the signal-to-noise ratio) for deciding when to keep the MLE.


Internal reports
  1. E.D. Sontag and H.J. Sussmann. Optimization algorithms for image restoration and segmentation. Technical report 34, Rutgers Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity, 1987.



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