Publications of Eduardo D. Sontag jointly with Z. Aminzare |
Articles in journal or book chapters |
Aerotaxis, the directed migration along oxygen gradients, allows many microorganisms to locate favorable oxygen concentrations. Despite oxygen's fundamental role for life, even key aspects of aerotaxis remain poorly understood. In Bacillus subtilis, for example, there is conflicting evidence of whether migration occurs to the maximal oxygen concentration available or to an optimal intermediate one, and how aerotaxis can be maintained over a broad range of conditions. Using precisely controlled oxygen gradients in a microfluidic device, spanning the full spectrum of conditions from quasi-anoxic to oxic (60nM-1mM), we resolved B. subtilis' ``oxygen preference conundrum'' by demonstrating consistent migration towards maximum oxygen concentrations. Surprisingly, the strength of aerotaxis was largely unchanged over three decades in oxygen concentration (131nM-196mM). We discovered that in this range B. subtilis responds to the logarithm of the oxygen concentration gradient, a log-sensing strategy that affords organisms high sensitivity over a wide range of conditions. |
This paper presents a condition which guarantees spatial uniformity for the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of a reaction diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) with Neumann boundary conditions in one dimension, using the Jacobian matrix of the reaction term and the first Dirichlet eigenvalue of the Laplacian operator on the given spatial domain. The estimates are based on logarithmic norms in non-Hilbert spaces, which allow, in particular for a class of examples of interest in biology, tighter estimates than other previously proposed methods. |
This paper gives conditions that guarantee spatial uniformity of the solutions of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, stated in terms of the Jacobian matrix and Neumann eigenvalues of elliptic operators on the given spatial domain, and similar conditions for diffusively-coupled networks of ordinary differential equations. Also derived are numerical tests making use of linear matrix inequalities that are useful in certifying these conditions. |
Contraction theory provides an elegant way to analyze the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems. In this paper, we discuss the application of contraction to synchronization of diffusively interconnected components described by nonlinear differential equations. We provide estimates of convergence of the difference in states between components, in the cases of line, complete, and star graphs, and Cartesian products of such graphs. We base our approach on contraction theory, using matrix measures derived from norms that are not induced by inner products. Such norms are the most appropriate in many applications, but proofs cannot rely upon Lyapunov-like linear matrix inequalities, and different techniques, such as the use of the Perron-Frobenious Theorem in the cases of L1 or L-infinity norms, must be introduced. |
This paper proves that ordinary differential equation systems that are contractive with respect to $L^p$ norms remain so when diffusion is added. Thus, diffusive instabilities, in the sense of the Turing phenomenon, cannot arise for such systems, and in fact any two solutions converge exponentially to each other. The key tools are semi-inner products and logarithmic Lipschitz constants in Banach spaces. An example from biochemistry is discussed, which shows the necessity of considering non-Hilbert spaces. An analogous result for graph-defined interconnections of systems defined by ordinary differential equations is given as well. |
Conference articles |
Contraction theory provides an elegant way to analyze the behaviors of certain nonlinear dynamical systems. Under sometimes easy to check hypotheses, systems can be shown to have the incremental stability property that trajectories converge to each other. The present paper provides a self-contained introduction to some of the basic concepts and results in contraction theory, discusses applications to synchronization and to reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, and poses several open questions. |
In this paper, we sketch recent results for synchronization in a network of identical ODE models which are diffusively interconnected. In particular, we provide estimates of convergence of the difference in states between components, in the cases of line, complete, and star graphs, and Cartesian products of such graphs. |
We present conditions that guarantee spatial uniformity in diffusively-coupled systems. Diffusive coupling is a ubiquitous form of local interaction, arising in diverse areas including multiagent coordination and pattern formation in biochemical networks. The conditions we derive make use of the Jacobian matrix and Neumann eigenvalues of elliptic operators, and generalize and unify existing theory about asymptotic convergence of trajectories of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations as well as compartmental ordinary differential equations. We present numerical tests making use of linear matrix inequalities that may be used to certify these conditions. We discuss an example pertaining to electromechanical oscillators. The paper's main contributions are unified verifiable relaxed conditions that guarantee synchrony. |
Internal reports |
This note works out an advection-diffusion approximation to the density of a population of E. coli bacteria undergoing chemotaxis in a one-dimensional space. Simulations show the high quality of predictions under a shallow-gradient regime. |
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