 Academy
(garden of Academus, Athens)
 Alexander the Great
(d. 323 BC)
 Alexandria
(Egypt, founded by Alexander)
 analysis
(Greek technique, the forerunner of algebra)
 Archimedes
(3rd c. BC, Sicily)
 arithmos
(number)
 Athens
(leading cultural center of classical Greece)
 acrophonic
(number system)
 anachronism
(historical glitch)
 apocryphal
(inauthentic)
 colophon
(signature etc)
 codex
(ancient book)
 commensurable
(rational ratio)
 continued fraction
(Euclidean algorithm)
 p; 
 Euclid
(Elements, 300BC)
 Euclidean algorithm
(anthyphairesis, alternate subtraction)
 Eudoxus
(400 BC, theory of proportions)
 geometric algebra
(certain Babylonian and Greek techniques)
 golden section
(extreme and mean ratio; ratio found in star pentagram)
 greatest common measure
(see measure)
 Heiberg
(editor of Euclid in Greek, about 1900)
 Hellenistic
(Greek culture after Alexander)
 irrational number
(not a fraction)
 logos
(proportion, among other things)
 measure
(divisor [Euclid])
 Mesopotamia
(ancient Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers)
 
 number
(2,3,4,... in Greek usage)
 Old Babylonian
(around 1800 BC in Mesopotamia; cuneiform writing)
 Plimpton 322
(Babylonian Pythagorean triple text)
 Plato
(philosopher, follower of Socrates, classic period)
 papyrus
(plant and writing material made from that plant, similar
to paper)
 polyphonic writing
(multiple meanings)
 porism
 pentagram
(pentagonal star)
 prime number
(2,3,5,7,11, ...  no divisors)
 Proclus
(neoPlatonist commentator on Euclid, 400 AD)
 Pythagoras
(Greek mystic, mathematician, 6th c. BC)
 quadrature
("squaring" = computation of area)
 
 recension
(draft, edition)
 rhetorical algebra
(written out in words)
 Seleucid
(late Babylonian, or Hellenistic)
 regular number
(reciprocal has a finite sexagesimal expansion)
 sexagesimal
(base 60)
 syncopated algebra
(abbreviated but not symbolic)
 synthesis
(construction of a proof; compare "analysis")
 Thales
(Greek mathematician, contemporary of Pythagoras)
 Theatetus
(classic Greek mathematician, expert on irrationals)
 Theon
(late and influential commentator on Euclid's Elements)
 Winkelhaken
(Babylonian cuneiform symbol made with the end of
the stylus)
